1796 William Tuke

William Tuke founded the York Retreat, in part response to the death of a woman in the appalling conditions in Bootham Park Hospital, York. The Retreat provided comfortable surroundings, rejected the use of chains or manacles, otherwise commonplace for ‘lunatics’ of the time and encouraged occupational therapy and family visits.

The 19th Century in England and Wales saw the main legal foundations laid of societal recognition of the role of  mental disorder in offending. A number of high-profile legal cases carried out by mentally disordered offenders were associated with Acts of Parliament leading to the concept of hospitalisation as opposed to imprisonment, and the development of specialist hospitals.